Resilience is defined as the capacity for an individual to maintain normal functioning and resist the development of psychiatric disorders in response to stress and trauma. Although previous investigators have acknowledged the important role of resilience in those with substance use disorders, this is the first study to investigate the reliability, validity, and factor structure of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC-25) in a sample of individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD). Additionally, we explored the relationship between trait resilience and the severity of drug-related problems.
Four hundred and three participants (22 % female) with OUD completed the CD-RISC-25, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), and the self-report Addiction Severity Index (ASI). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) tested the originally proposed 5-factor solution of the CD-RISC-25.
CFA results indicated that a 5-factor model of the CD-RISC-25 performed somewhat better than the 1-factor solution. Pearson correlation revealed a negative association between CD-RISC-25 (M = 75.82, SD = 15.78) and ASI drug-use composite score (M = .25, SD=-0.16), r=-0.148, p<.01, and between CD-RISC-25 and BDI-II (M = 11.33, SD = 10.58), r=-.237, p<.001.
Albeit providing only limited support for the original 5-factor structure, our results indicate that the scale may be useful for screening individuals with OUD who have a vulnerability to stress. Consistent with prior studies, higher resilience was associated with lower depression symptoms and addiction severity, further demonstrating the CD-RISC-25 ability to predict psychiatric stability. To inform the development of more targeted interventions, future studies should examine resilience longitudinally, in addition to exploring more comprehensive approaches to measuring resilience.