BMC infectious diseases 2018 02 2018(1) 83 doi 10.1186/s12879-018-2977-0
Non-adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) is one of the factors for treatment failure in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients in developing countries. The main objective of this study was to identify factors for treatment failure among adult HIV patients based on the assessment of first month adherence in the study area.
The study was conducted using secondary data from antiretroviral unit at Felege Hiwot Teaching and Specialized Hospital. A prospective study was undertaken on 792 randomly selected adult HIV positive patients who have started HAART. The variable of interest, adherence to HAART was categorized as non-adherence if a patient had taken less than 95% of the prescribed medication and this was measured using pill counts. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests of association, independent samples t-test and binary logistic regression were used for data analysis.
In first month therapy, 68.2% of the patients belong to adherence group to HAART. As age increases, a patient without cell phone was less likely to be adherent to HAART as compared to patients with cell phone (AOR = 0.661, 95% CI: (0.243, 0.964)). Compared to urban patients, rural patients were less likely to adhere to HAART (AOR = 0.995, 95% CI: (0.403, 0.999)). A patient who did not disclose his/her disease to families or communities had less probability to be adherent to HAART (AOR = 0.325, 95% CI: (0.01, 0.64)). Similarly, a patient who did not get social support (AOR = 0.42, 95% CI: (0,021, 0.473)) had less probability of adherence to HAART. The main reasons for patients to be non-adherent were forgetfulness, side effects, feeling sick and running out of medication.
This study indentified certain groups of patients who are at higher risk and who need counseling. Such groups should be targeted and tailored for improvement of adherence to HAART among HIV positive adults. The health care providers should advise the community to provide social support to HIV positive patients whenever their disease is disclosed. On the other hand, patients should disclose their disease to community to get integrated supports. HIV infected patients who are directed to start HAART should adhere the prescribed medication. For the adherence to be effective, patients who have cell phone should use them as reminder to take pills on time.