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Factors associated with cervical precancerous lesions among women screened for cervical cancer in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A case control study.

Factors associated with cervical precancerous lesions among women screened for cervical cancer in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A case control study.
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Teame H, Addissie A, Ayele W, Hirpa S, Gebremariam A, Gebreheat G, Jemal A,


Teame H, Addissie A, Ayele W, Hirpa S, Gebremariam A, Gebreheat G, Jemal A, (click to view)

Teame H, Addissie A, Ayele W, Hirpa S, Gebremariam A, Gebreheat G, Jemal A,

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PloS one 2018 01 1913(1) e0191506 doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0191506
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Cervical cancer is the second most prevalent cancer among women in the developing countries including Ethiopia. Precancerous lesions can be developed and risk to the development of cervical cancer over time. Early identification of the precancerous lesion and its risk factor is paramount in preventing cervical cancer. However, the determinants of cervical precancerous lesions are not well documented in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study is conducted to determine factors associated with cervical precancerous lesion among women screened for cervical cancer.

METHODS
A hospital-based unmatched case-control study was conducted in selected health facilities in Addis Ababa from March to April 2016. Data were collected from 114 cases and 229 controls using an interviewer-administered questionnaire, entered to Epi Info version 7, and exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Odds ratios with its 95% confidence intervals and two-tailed P-value were calculated. Variables with P-value ≤ 0.2 in the bivariate analysis were included in the multivariate logistic regression model.

RESULTS
Women aged 40-49 years had 2.4-fold higher odds of precancerous lesions compared to those aged 30-39 (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 2.4, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.27-4.54). Women having history of sexually transmitted infections were significantly associated with cervical precancerous lesion compared to their counterparts (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 3.20, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.26-8.10). Similarly, those women who had two or more lifetime sexual partners (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 2.17 95% Confidence Interval: 1.01-4.67), and women whose husbands had two or more lifetime sexual partners (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 3.03, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.25, 7.33) had higher odds of cervical precancerous lesions.

CONCLUSIONS
Older age, history of multiple sexual partners and sexual transmitted infections were associated with increased risk of precancerous lesion. Therefore, women with higher risk of precancerous lesions should be encouraged to be screened more frequently for cervical cancer.

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