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Fall in thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) may be an early marker of ipilimumab-induced hypophysitis.

Fall in thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) may be an early marker of ipilimumab-induced hypophysitis.
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De Sousa SMC, Sheriff N, Tran CH, Menzies AM, Tsang VHM, Long GV, Tonks KTT,


De Sousa SMC, Sheriff N, Tran CH, Menzies AM, Tsang VHM, Long GV, Tonks KTT, (click to view)

De Sousa SMC, Sheriff N, Tran CH, Menzies AM, Tsang VHM, Long GV, Tonks KTT,

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Pituitary 2018 01 29() doi 10.1007/s11102-018-0866-6

Abstract
PURPOSE
Hypophysitis develops in up to 19% of melanoma patients treated with ipilimumab, a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 antibody. Early detection may avert life-threatening hypopituitarism. We aimed to assess the incidence of ipilimumab-induced hypophysitis (IH) at a quaternary melanoma referral centre, and to determine whether cortisol or thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) monitoring could predict IH onset.

METHODS
We performed a retrospective cohort study of ipilimumab-treated patients at a quaternary melanoma referral centre in Australia. The inclusion criteria were patients with metastatic or unresectable melanoma treated with ipilimumab monotherapy, and cortisol and TSH measurements prior to ≥ 2 infusions. The main outcomes were IH incidence and TSH and cortisol patterns in patients who did and did not develop IH.

RESULTS
Of 78 ipilimumab-treated patients, 46 met the study criteria and 9/46 (20%) developed IH at a median duration of 13.0 weeks (range 7.7-18.1) following ipilimumab initiation. All patients whose TSH fell ≥ 80% compared to baseline developed IH, and, in 5/9 patients with IH, TSH fell prior to cortisol fall and IH diagnosis. Pre-cycle-4 TSH was significantly lower in those who developed IH (0.31 vs. 1.73 mIU/L, P = 0.006). TSH fall was detected at a median time of 9.2 (range 7.7-16.4) weeks after commencing ipilimumab, and a median of 3.6 (range of - 1.4 to 9.7) weeks before IH diagnosis. There was no difference in TSH between the groups before cycles 1-3 or in cortisol before cycles 1-4.

CONCLUSIONS
TSH fall ≥ 80% may be an early marker of IH. Serial TSH measurement during ipilimumab therapy may be an inexpensive tool to expedite IH diagnosis.

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