Family with sequence similarity 46 member C (FAM46C) is a non-canonical poly(A) polymerase that is associated with tumorigenesis. However, its role in prostate cancer development is not fully understood. Herein, we determined expression pattern of FAM46C in prostate cancer and further identified its effect on the tumorigenesis and chemosensitivity. FAM46C expression was decreased in prostate cancer tissues and cell lines compared with corresponding controls. FAM46C expression was significantly associated with the Gleason score, tumor size and overall survival. FAM46C knockdown in 22RV1 and DU145 cells significantly inhibited apoptosis and promoted cell proliferation and cell cycle progression as well as activation of AKT. FAM46C overexpression had an inverse effect in DU145 cells and inhibited tumor growth . FAM46C inhibited cell proliferation and cell cycle progression and induced apoptosis via the PTEN/AKT signaling pathway. FAM46C promoted PTEN expression through inhibiting PTEN ubiquitination. The prostate cancer cells and patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mice with high-FAM46C-expressing demonstrated an enhanced chemosensitivity to docetaxel. These findings suggest that FAM46C control cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis through PTEN/AKT signaling pathway and is associated with chemosensitivity of prostate cancer. Modulation of their levels may offer a new approach for improving anti-tumor efficacy for chemotherapeutic agents in prostate cancer.