Familial chylomicronemia is an extremely rare disease. Lipoprotein lipase deficiency, lipoprotein defect or lipoprotein receptor defect are the main genetic causes of familial chylomicronemia.
We report a rare case of hypertriglyceridemia which was diagnosed at 24 days after birth. A newborn south east Asian baby born for G3P2A1 mother was presented with hematuria at 24 days at the hospital. The patient’s family history is significant for pink blood in an elder sibling who died within a few months of birth without a proper diagnosis. Physical examination was not significant for any findings. Urinalysis revealed numerous RBC in the urine. Blood draw to perform renal function test revealed a characteristic pink blood. Baby’s blood was normal and red in color at the time of birth. During the present visit, although most of the blood test were not able to be carried out by the regular laboratory instruments, the patient’s lipid profile was alarmingly high with triglyceride levels over 4000 mg/dL. Due to a very high triglyceride level in a neonate and a significant familial history, a genetic cause of hypertriglyceridemia is suspected. Upon diagnosis, baby was discontinued of breast feeding completely and was given a special diet devoid of triglyceride and containing medium chain fatty acid diet and was also started with fenofibrate. After a month and a half, follow up tests were conducted which showed the triglyceride level was reduced to 1300 and a reversal of the blood color from pink to red. Since the imported diet was extremely expensive for the family, the patient was put on skimmed milk with medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oil. With 6 weeks of treatment, baby’s condition has improved and is thriving well.
Our case reports an extremely rare and fatal condition and illustrated the significance of timely diagnosis and intervention for saving the life of the baby.