We evaluated outcomes of treatment with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), doxorubicin, and streptozocin (FAS) in well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) and its impact on subsequent therapy (everolimus or temozolomide). Advanced PanNET patients treated at our center from 1992 to 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients received bolus 5-FU (400 mg/m2), streptozocin (400 mg/m2) (both IV, days 1-5) and doxorubicin (40 mg/m2 IV, day 1) every 28 days. Overall response rate (ORR) was assessed using RECIST version 1.1. Of 243 eligible patients, 220 were evaluable for ORR, progression-free survival (PFS), and toxicity. Most (90%) had metastatic, nonfunctional PanNETs; 14% had prior therapy. ORR to FAS was 41% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 36-48%). Median follow-up was 61 months. Median PFS was 20 (95% CI: 15-23) months; median overall survival (OS) was 63 (95% CI: 60-71) months. Cox regression analyses suggested improvement with first-line vs subsequent lines of FAS therapy. Main adverse events ≥ grade 3 were neutropenia (10%) and nausea/vomiting (5.5%). Dose reductions were required in 32% of patients. Post-FAS everolimus (n=108; 68% second line) had a median PFS of 10 (95% CI: 8-14) months. Post-FAS temozolomide (n=60; 53% > fourth line) had an ORR of 13% and median PFS of 5.2 (95% CI: 4-12) months. In this largest reported cohort of PanNETs treated with chemotherapy, FAS demonstrated activity without significant safety concerns. FAS did not appear to affect subsequent PFS with everolimus; this sequence is being evaluated prospectively. Responses were noted with subsequent temozolomide-based regimens although PFS was possibly limited by line of therapy.© 2021 S. Karger AG, Basel.