Medical principles and practice : international journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre 2017 09 19() doi 10.1159/000481624
To investigate the relationship between urine pH and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components while controlling for covariates.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS
This cross-sectional study was conducted on 5,430 Japanese subjects (4691 without MetS; 739 with MetS) undergoing health assessments. Partial correlation analysis and analysis of covariance were used for controlling confounding parameters (age, gender, serum uric acid (UA) levels, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and smoking and drinking statuses). Using multiple logistic regression analyses, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for MetS incidence were calculated across urine pH categories. Path analysis was used to determine the relationship between MetS and urine pH.
Subjects with MetS had significantly lower urine pH (5.9 ± 0.7) than those without MetS (6.0 ± 0.7) (p <0.001). Partial correlation analysis showed that systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride and fasting plasma glucose levels were negatively correlated with urine pH, while high density lipoprotein-cholesterol was positively correlated with urine pH. Analysis of covariance indicated that urine pH decreased with an increasing number of metabolic abnormalities. Adjusted ORs (95% CI) for the presence of MetS in subjects with urine pH 5.5-6.0 and pH < 5.5 were 1.34 (1.04-1.73) and 1.52 (1.09-2.13), respectively (reference: subjects with a urine pH > 6.0).
The MetS and its components were independently associated with lower urine pH.