Hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia is a rare syndrome in which bone marrow failure occurs within weeks to 1 year after attack of acute hepatitis. Studies suggest that cytotoxic T lymphocytes play a central role in bone marrow destruction, but the exact etiology remains unknown. Bone marrow transplantation or immunosuppressive therapy are primary curative options. We present a case of a young male who was admitted to the Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology for acute hepatitis of an unknown cause. Liver biopsy revealed extensive inflammatory process with hepatocyte necrosis. Forty days later, new onset pancytopenia was identified. Bone marrow biopsy showed severe hypocellularity, and he was diagnosed with severe hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia. Treatment with cyclosporine was initiated, but with inadequate response, and pretransplant evaluation was started. Due to severe neutropenia, following alveotomy procedure, the patient developed deep neck infection with consequent airway obstruction. Despite urgent treatment, his condition deteriorated to sepsis with lethal outcome.
Copyright © 2020 by S. Karger AG, Basel.