Childhood vaccine-associated immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) has a mostly favorable prognosis. To identify factors associated with prognosis, a retrospective survey was conducted with children with ITP who were registered in the Japanese Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology registry from 2008 to 2011. A total of 477 patients were categorized into four groups by event preceding ITP onset: vaccine-precedence (VP; n = 43), vaccine/infection-precedence (VIP; n = 34), infection-precedence (IP; n = 162), and no vaccine/infection-precedence (NVI; n = 238). Compared to IP and NVI, VP and VIP were significantly younger at diagnosis, with the age distribution peaking at infancy, and more frequently had favorable prognosis. Time to platelet recovery to 100 × 10/µL was significantly faster for VP and VIP than NVI. Multivariate Cox regression analysis with sex, age at diagnosis, infection-precedence, and vaccine-precedence as variables revealed age < 36 months (HR 0.992, 95% CI 0.989-0.995; p < 0.001) and male sex (HR 0.770, 95% CI 0.623-0.952; p = 0.015) as associated factors, but not infection-precedence (p = 0.149) or vaccine-precedence (p = 0.650). In subgroup analysis in patients < 36 months, age at diagnosis (p < 0.001) was the only associated factor. Favorable prognosis of childhood vaccine-associated ITP is correlated with young age at vaccination, but not with vaccination itself.
© 2021. Japanese Society of Hematology.