The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors of relapse and treatment-related deaths in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children residing in Poland.A total of 1872 patients with newly diagnosed ALL, treated according to the ALL IC-BFM 2002 protocol in 14 Polish pediatric hematology centers from 2002 to 2012 were included in the study. Three-hundred eighty-four patients experienced treatment failure. The last follow-up was 31 December, 2016.Univariate analysis identified factors in each risk group that were significantly different between children whose treatment failed and those who remained in the first remission. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that only the age of 10 years or over at primary diagnosis in the high-risk group was an adverse prognostic factor. To facilitate the analysis, patients were divided into three groups: relapsed children who survived; relapsed children who died; children without relapse who died due to toxicity.Our analysis showed that age older than 10 years is a particular risk factor for the failure of first-line of treatment, both in terms of relapse and treatment-related mortality.