Most patients with severe obesity show glucose intolerance. Early after sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) or gastric bypass (LRYGB), a marked amelioration in glycemic control occurs. The underlying mechanism is not yet clear.
To determine whether the improvement in glycemic control on the level of endocrine pancreatic function is due to an increased first-phase insulin secretion comparing LRYGB to LSG.
University of Basel Hospital and St. Clara Research Ltd., Basel, Switzerland.
Sixteen morbidly obese patients with severe obesity and different degrees of insulin resistance were randomized to LSG or LRYGB, and islet cell functions were tested by intravenous glucose and intravenous arginine administration before and 4 weeks after surgery.
Fasting insulin and glucose levels and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance were significantly lower in both groups after surgery compared to baseline, while no change was seen in fasting C-peptide, amylin, and glucagon. After intravenous glucose stimulation, no statistically significant pre- to postoperative change in area under the curve (AUC 0-60 min) was seen for insulin, glucagon, amylin, and C-peptide. No statistically significant pre- to postoperative change in incremental AUC for first-phase insulin release (AUC 0-10 min), second-phase insulin secretion (AUC 10-60 min), and insulin/glucose ratio could be shown in either group. Arginine-stimulated insulin and glucagon release showed no pre- to postoperative change.
Intravenous glucose and arginine administrations show no pre- to postoperative changes of insulin release, amylin, glucagon, or C-peptide concentrations, and no differences between LRYGB and LSG were found. The postoperative improvement in glycemic control is not caused by changes in endocrine pancreatic hormone secretion.

© 2020 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.