The advantages of indirect composite restorations such as less crack formation during their computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing process, compared with ceramic restorations, have resulted in their growing popularity. However, restoration failure is a major concern with regard to the long-term clinical success of restorations and may occur as the result of propagation of a crack originated from an internal flaw in the restoration. This study aimed to compare the fracture toughness of three indirect composite resins.
In this experimental study, 10 specimens measuring 3 × 3 × 18 mm were fabricated of Gradia, Crios, and high impact polymer composite indirect composites. A single edge notch with a diameter < 0.3 mm and 0.3 mm length was created in the 9 mm longitudinal dimension of specimens using a no. 11 surgical scalpel. The specimens were then subjected to 4-point flexural strength test in a universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 0.1 mm/s until failure.
Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics via one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s HSD (honestly significant difference) test. The statistical power was set at ˂ 0.05.
One-way ANOVA showed a significant difference in fracture toughness of the three composite groups ( = 0.000). According to the Tukey HSD analysis, the fracture toughness of HIPC was significantly higher than that of the other two composites. The fracture toughness of Gradia was significantly lower among all.
Within the limitations of this study, the results showed that high temperature-pressure polymerization can increase resistance to crack propagation and subsequently improve the clinical service of indirect composite restorations. Although we do not know the filler volume percentage of HIPC, it seems that filler volume percentage of the composite is inversely correlated with fracture toughness.