Across numerous settings, bone mineral density for age and sex is lower in children/adolescents living with perinatally-acquired HIV (PHIV) compared to uninfected peers. We assessed incidences of any fracture/any long bone fracture, and osteoporosis prevalence in PHIV and HIV-exposed uninfected (PHEU) participants in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS).
Lifetime history of fracture events from birth up to age 20 years was obtained by chart review and/or interview, including age at fracture, mechanism, and bone(s) fractured. Poisson regression models were fit comparing fracture incidence by HIV status adjusted for age, sex, and race, with effect modification by age (<6, ≥6 yr).
PHIV (N = 412) were older (median 17.5 vs 16.7 yr) and more frequently reported black race (72% vs 61%) than PHEU children/adolescents (N = 206). 17% of PHIV and 12% of PHEU ever reported a fracture. Among children <6 yr, the adjusted incidence rate ratio of ≥1 fracture was higher (7.23; 95% CI 0.98, 53.51) in PHIV than PHEU, but similar among children/adolescents ≥6 years (1.20; 95% CI: 0.77, 1.87). Results were similar for long bone fracture. The most common fracture mechanisms were falling to the ground from a standing height (23.6% PHIV vs 8.8% PHEU) and sports injuries (21.3% vs 32.4%), and the most commonly fractured sites were the forearm and small bones of the wrist/hands. None of the children had osteoporosis.
Among children/adolescents ≥6 yr of age, fractures were similar by perinatal HIV status. Prospective, targeted collection of fracture history will be necessary to determine rates of fracture as PHIV and PHEU age into adulthood.
Lifetime fracture history was collected in children/adolescents living with perinatally-acquired HIV (PHIV) and HIV-exposed uninfected (PHEU) children from birth up to age 20 years. Fracture incidence was higher in PHIV compared to PHEU among children <6 years old, but not among older children/adolescents.

Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Inc.