Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a newly diagnosed chronic atopic illness. Recent advancements in understanding its genetic and molecular biology etiology may lead to improved illness management. EoE is a kind of atopic illness. The majority of EoE patients also have additional atopic illnesses such as allergic rhinitis, asthma, IgE-mediated food allergies, and/or atopic dermatitis. The local inflammation is a T helper type 2 (Th2) flogosis caused by a mixed IgE and n-IgE-mediated response to dietary and/or environmental allergens. According to epidemiological research, EoE is an atopic illness with a high hereditary component. EoE has been linked to single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes that are produced by the epithelium and are essential in atopic inflammation, such as thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) on chromosome 5q22 in the Th2 cytokine cluster, Calpain 14, EMSY, and Eotaxin3. When EoE is diagnosed, it is critical to managing the local eosinophilic inflammation not only to provide symptomatic relief to the patient but also to avoid consequences including esophageal stricture and food impaction.
EoE is treated in the same way as many other atopic illnesses are: with topical steroids and/or dietary antigen avoidance. The improved knowledge of EoE may lead to more targeted and conclusive EoE therapies.