Males and females respond to pathogens differently and exhibit significantly different frequencies of autoimmune disease. For example, vaccinated adult females control influenza virus better than males, but females suffer systemic lupus erythematosus at a 9:1 frequency compared to males. Numerous explanations have been offered for these sex differences, but most have involved indirect mechanisms by which estrogen, a nuclear hormone, modifies cell barriers or immunity. In search of a direct mechanism, we examined the binding of estrogen receptor (ER), a class I nuclear hormone receptor, to the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus. Here, we show that in purified murine B cells, ER and RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II) exhibit extraordinarily similar DNA binding patterns. We further demonstrate that ER preferentially binds adenosine-cytidine (AC)-repeats in the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus when supplemental estrogen is added to purified, lipopolysaccharide-activated B cells. Based on these and previous data, we hypothesize that (i) estrogen guides the binding of ER and its RNA Pol II partner within the locus, which in turn instructs sterile transcription and class switch recombination (CSR), (ii) ER binding to AC-repeats modifies the DNA architecture and loops associated with CSR, and (iii) by these mechanisms, estrogen instructs antibody expression. By targeting ER-DNA interactions in the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus, clinicians may ultimately enhance antibody responses in the context of infectious diseases and reduce antibody responses in the context of allergic or autoimmune reactions.
In situ effects of Lathyrus sativus- PGPR to remediate and restore quality and fertility of Pb and Cd polluted soils.
February 13, 2020
July 9, 2020
Important roles of estrogen receptor alpha in tumor progression and anti-estrogen therapy of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
August 24, 2020
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