Serious infection caused by multi-drug-resistant bacteria is a major threat to human health. Bacteria can invade the host tissue and produce various toxins to damage or kill host cells, which may induce life-threatening sepsis. Here, we aimed to explore whether fructose-coated Ångstrom-scale silver particles (F-AgÅPs), which were prepared by our self-developed evaporation-condensation system and optimized coating approach, could kill bacteria and sequester bacterial toxins to attenuate fatal bacterial infections. A series of assays were conducted to test the anti-bacterial efficacy of F-AgÅPs, and to investigate whether F-AgÅPs could protect against multi-drug resistant ()- and ()-induced cell death, and suppress their toxins ( hemolysin and lipopolysaccharide)-induced cell injury or inflammation. The mouse models of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)- or bloodstream infection-induced lethal sepsis were established to assess whether the intravenous administration of F-AgÅPs could decrease bacterial burden, inhibit inflammation, and improve the survival rates of mice. The levels of silver in urine and feces of mice were examined to evaluate the excretion of F-AgÅPs. F-AgÅPs efficiently killed various bacteria that can cause lethal infections and also competed with host cells to bind with α-hemolysin, thus blocking its cytotoxic activity. F-AgÅPs inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced endothelial injury and macrophage inflammation, but not by directly binding to lipopolysaccharide. F-AgÅPs potently reduced bacterial burden, reversed dysregulated inflammation, and enhanced survival in mice with CLP- or bloodstream infection-induced sepsis, either alone or combined with antibiotic therapy. After three times injections within 48 h, 79.18% of F-AgÅPs were excreted feces at the end of the 14-day observation period. This study suggests the prospect of F-AgÅPs as a promising intravenous agent for treating severe bacterial infections.
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