Accurate detection of transition zone (TZ) prostate cancer (PCa) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) remains challenging using clinical subjective assessment due to overlap between PCa and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The objective of this paper is to describe a deep learning-based framework for fully automated detection of PCa in the TZ using T2-weighted (T2W) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map MR images.
This was a single-center IRB approved cross-sectional study of men undergoing 3T MRI on two systems. The dataset consisted of 196 patients (103 with and 93 without clinically significant [Grade Group 2 or higher] TZ PCa) to train and test our proposed methodology, with an additional 168 patients with peripheral zone PCa used only for training. We proposed an ensemble of classifiers in which multiple U-Net-based models are designed for prediction of TZ PCa location on ADC map MR images, with initial automated segmentation of the prostate to guide detection. We compared accuracy of ADC alone to T2W and combined ADC+T2W MRI for input images, and investigated improvements using ensembles over their constituent models with different methods of diversity in individual models by hyperparameter configuration, loss function and model architecture.
Our developed algorithm reported sensitivity and precision of 0.829 and 0.617 in 56 test cases containing 31 instances of TZ PCa and in 25 patients without clinically significant TZ tumors. Patient-wise classification accuracy had an area under receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.974. Single U-Net models using ADC alone (sensitivity 0.829, precision 0.534) outperformed assessment using T2W (sensitivity 0.086, precision 0.081) and assessment using combined ADC+T2W (sensitivity 0.687, precision 0.489). While the ensemble of U-Nets with varying hyperparameters demonstrated the highest performance, all ensembles improved PCa detection compared to individual models, with sensitivities and precisions close to the collective best of constituent models.
We describe a deep-learning-based method for fully automated TZ PCa detection using ADC map MR images that outperformed assessment by T2W and ADC+T2W. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.