Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency affects over 500 million individuals who can experience anemia in response to oxidative stressors such as certain foods and drugs. Recently, the World Health Organization (WHO) called for revisiting G6PD variant classification as a priority to implement genetic medicine in low- and middle-income countries. Toward this goal, we sought to collect reports of G6PD variants and provide interpretations. We identified 1,341 G6PD variants in population and clinical databases. Using the ACMG standards and guidelines for the interpretation of sequence variants, we provided interpretations for 268 variants, including 186 variants that were not reported or of uncertain significance in ClinVar, bringing the total number of variants with non-conflicting interpretations to 400. For 414 variants with functional or clinical data, we analyzed associations between activity, stability, and current classification systems, including the new 2022 WHO classification. We corroborated known challenges with classification systems, including phenotypic variation, emphasizing the importance of comparing variant effects across individuals and studies. Biobank data made available by All of Us illustrate the benefit of large-scale sequencing and phenotyping by adding additional support connecting variants to G6PD-deficient anemia. By leveraging available data and interpretation guidelines, we created a repository for information on G6PD variants and nearly doubled the number of variants with clinical interpretations. These tools enable better interpretation of G6PD variants for the implementation of genetic medicine.
Copyright © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.