Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) often develops resistance to first-line targeted therapy such as sunitinib. G-Protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1) agonist G-1 was recently reported to regulate RCC physiology but the role of G-1 in RCC tumorigenesis and sunitinib resistance remains largely unknown.
Parental and sunitinib-resistant 786-O cells were treated with GPER1 agonist G-1, and quantitative phosphoproteomics was performed. Bioinformatic analyses and validations, including immunoblotting, cell migration, and cell cycle distribution, were performed.
G-1 repressed cell proliferation and migration in both parental and sunitinib-resistant 786-O cells. Phosphoproteomic signatures, including phosphoinositide 3-kinase and protein kinase B (PI3K-AKT) as well as other pathways, were up-regulated in sunitinib-resistant cells but application of G-1 reversed this effect. Among phosphoprotein candidates, activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) Thr69/71 phosphorylation was antagonistically regulated by sunitinib resistance and G-1.
Our results open up the possibility for managing RCC and sunitinib resistance by GPER1 agonist G-1 and its regulated pathways.

Copyright© 2021, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.