Scientific reports 2018 04 108(1) 5750 doi 10.1038/s41598-018-24075-x
ViscumTT, a whole mistletoe preparation, has shown synergistic induction of apoptosis in several pediatric tumor entities. High therapeutic potential has previously been observed in Ewing’s sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, ALL and AML. In this study, we analyzed modulatory effects on the cell cycle by viscumTT in three osteosarcoma cell lines with various TP53 statuses. ViscumTT treatment induced G1 arrest in TP53 wild-type and null-mutant cells, but S arrest in TP53 mutant cells. Blockage of G1/S transition was accompanied by down-regulation of the key regulators CDK4, CCND1, CDK2, CCNE, CCNA. However, investigations on the transcriptional level revealed secondary TP53 participation. Cell cycle arrest was predominantly mediated by transcriptionally increased expression of GADD45A and CDKN1A and decreased SKP2 levels. Enhanced CDKN1A and GADD45A expression further played a role in viscumTT-induced apoptosis with involvement of stress-induced MAPK8 and inactivation of MAPK1/3. Furthermore, viscumTT inhibited the pro-survival pathway STAT3 by dephosphorylation of the two sites, Tyr705 and Ser727, by down-regulation of total STAT3 and its direct downstream targets BIRC5 and C-MYC. Moreover, tests of the efficacy of viscumTT in vivo showing reduction of tumor volume confirmed the high therapeutic potential as an anti-tumoral agent for osteosarcoma.