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GADD45a Promotes Active DNA Demethylation of the MMP-9 Promoter via Base Excision Repair Pathway in AGEs-treated keratinocytes and in diabetic male rat skin.

GADD45a Promotes Active DNA Demethylation of the MMP-9 Promoter via Base Excision Repair Pathway in AGEs-treated keratinocytes and in diabetic male rat skin.
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Zhou L, Wang W, Yang C, Zeng T, Hu M, Wang X, Li N, Sun K, Wang C, Zhou J, Ren M, Yan L,


Zhou L, Wang W, Yang C, Zeng T, Hu M, Wang X, Li N, Sun K, Wang C, Zhou J, Ren M, Yan L, (click to view)

Zhou L, Wang W, Yang C, Zeng T, Hu M, Wang X, Li N, Sun K, Wang C, Zhou J, Ren M, Yan L,

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Endocrinology 2017 12 13() doi 10.1210/en.2017-00686
Abstract

Diabetes elevates matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) levels in the skin and its keratinocytes, and activated MMP-9 impairs skin wound healing. Epigenetic regulation of the DNA methylation status within the MMP-9 promoter plays an important role in the alteration of MMP-9 expression. Our aim was to investigate the role and mechanism of growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible 45a (GADD45a), a well-known DNA demethylation regulatory protein that mediates DNA methylation, in the regulation of MMP-9 expression. In this study, we showed that GADD45a was markedly upregulated in skin tissues from patients with diabetic foot ulcers, in diabetic rats and in human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells exposed to advanced glycation end products (AGEs). We observed a significant positive correlation between the levels of GADD45a and MMP-9 expression. Knockdown of GADD45a ameliorated the increase in MMP-9 transcription induced by diabetic condition by inhibiting demethylation in the MMP-9 promoter and promoted diabetic HaCaT cell migration, but GADD45a knockdown did not affect HaCaT cell proliferation or apoptosis. Additionally, we demonstrated that overexpression of GADD45a activated MMP-9 expression by inducing promoter demethylation. Moreover, we found that GADD45a binds to the promoter of MMP-9 and recruits thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG) for base excision repair (BER)-mediated demethylation in diabetic HaCaT cells and diabetic rat skin. Our results reveal a new mechanism in which GADD45a is required for demethylation of the MMP-9 promoter and the induction of diabetic wound healing. Inhibiting GADD45a might be a therapeutic strategy for diabetic foot ulcers.

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