To investigate whether differences in procedural volume exist between practicing male and female glaucoma specialists.
A cross-sectional analysis SUBJECTS: A total of 213 female and 666 male glaucoma specialists who performed greater than or equal to 11 traditional incisional glaucoma procedures for Medicare beneficiaries between 2014 and 2018.
The 2014-2018 Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Data was queried using Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) and Evaluation and Management (E&M) codes to identify clinic visits, cataract, glaucoma drainage implant (GDI), trabeculectomy, minimally invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS), and office-based glaucoma laser procedures. The number of procedures performed per provider was averaged and compared between male and female specialists. Univariate ordinary least squares linear regression analysis was used to investigate the effects of gender on procedural volume. Multivariate ordinary least squares linear regression analysis was used to examine the effects of gender, number of group practice members, and years after medical school graduation on cataract, GDI, trabeculectomy, MIGS, and glaucoma laser procedural volume.
Mean difference in the number of procedures by gender and predictors of procedural volume.
In the univariate analysis, males performed an estimated 7.8 more MIGS (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 2.7-12.9; p=0.003), 138.9 more cataract (95% CI 59.6-218.3; p=0.0006), and 1.99 more GDI procedures (95% CI 0.03-3.95; p=0.046) than their female counterparts. This relationship remained true for MIGS and cataract procedures in the multivariate analysis after controlling for clinical volume, number of group practice members, and years after medical school graduation (MIGS, ß=6.1 [95% CI 0.5-11.8], p=0.03; cataract, ß= 110.2 [95% CI 16.9-203.5]; p=0.02). Glaucoma drainage implant procedures were no longer associated with the gender of the surgeon in the multivariate analysis (ß= 2.1 [95% CI -0.1-4.2], p=0.06). The volume of trabeculectomy and office-based glaucoma laser procedures did not differ between genders in both the univariate (glaucoma laser, ß= 7.0 [95% CI -4.4-18.5], p=0.23; trabeculectomy, ß= 2.7 [95% CI -0.8-6.2], p=0.13) and multivariate analyses (glaucoma laser, ß= -7.3 [95% CI -18.7-4.1], p=0.21; trabeculectomy, ß= -1.7 [95% CI -5.6-2.1], p=0.38).
Female glaucoma specialists performed fewer MIGS and cataract procedures compared to their male counterparts, even after controlling for clinical volume, which can be seen as a relative measure of work productivity, years after medical school graduation, a proxy for experience, and number of group practice members. After controlling for these factors, there were no differences in incisional glaucoma or glaucoma laser procedure volume between male and female specialists. Further research is needed to understand factors contributing to these differences.

Copyright © 2022. Published by Elsevier Inc.