The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic shows a marked geographical variation in its prevalence and mortality. The question arises if the host genetic variation may (partly) affect the prevalence and mortality of COVID-19. We postulated that the geographical variation of human polymorphisms might partly explain the variable prevalence of the infection. We investigated some candidate genes that have the potential to play a role in the immune defense against COVID-19: complement component 3 (C3), galactoside 2-alpha-L-fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2), haptoglobin (Hp), vitamin D binding protein (DBP), human homeostatic iron regulator protein (HFE), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), and angiotensin-converting enzyme 1 (ACE1). In a univariate approach, ACE1 D/I, C3, CFTR, and HFE polymorphisms correlated significantly with COVID-19 prevalence/mortality, whereas Hp and FUT2 polymorphism did not show any significant correlations. In a multivariate analysis, only ACE1 D/I and C3 polymorphisms were determinants for COVID-19 prevalence/mortality. The other polymorphisms (CFTR, DBP, FUT2, HFE, and Hp) did not correlate with COVID-19 prevalence/mortality. Whereas ACE1 D/I polymorphism shows functional links with ACE2 (which is the receptor for the virus) in COVID-19, C3 can act as a critical step in the virus-induced inflammation. Our findings plead against a bystander role of the polymorphisms as a marker for historical migrations, which comigrate with causal genes involved in COVID-19 infection. Further studies are required to assess the clinical outcome of COVID-19 in C3S and ACE1 D allele carriers and to study the role of C3 and ACE1 D/I polymorphisms in COVID-19 and their potential effects on treatment response.