Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a special disease entity of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The clinical use of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has transformed APL into the most curable form of AML. The majority of APL cases are characterized by the fusion gene PML-RARA. Although the PML-RARA fusion gene can be detected in almost all APL cases, translocation variants of APL have been reported. To date, this is the most comprehensive review of these translocations, discussing 15 different variants. Reviewed genes involved in APL variants include: ZBTB16, NPM, NuMA, STAT5b, PRKAR1A, FIP1L1, BCOR, NABP1, TBLR1, GTF2I, IRF2BP2, FNDC3B, ADAMDTS17, STAT3, and TFG. The genotypic and phenotypic features of APL translocations are summarized. All reported studies were either case reports or case series indicating the rarity of these entities and limiting the ability to drive conclusions regarding their characteristics. However, reported variants have shown variable clinical and morphological features, with diverse responsiveness to ATRA.
Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Ltd.