Rhynchosia nulubilis (black soybean) has many applications in oriental medicine. It is traditionally used to treat disease related with high blood pressure, diabetes, inflammation, and osteoporosis. Furthermore, fermented soybean foods have traditionally been used for immunity enhancement in East Asia. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of germinated R. nulubilis (GR) against delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) are not fully understood.
This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of germinated Rhynchosia nulubilis (GR) fermented with the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus pentosus SC65 (GR-SC65) isolated from pickled burdock.
We investigated the effects of GR-SC65 (300 mg/kg/day) on ear thickness and immune cell infiltration in DNFB-induced DTH in mice. We used dexamethasone (3 mg/kg) as a reference drug. Changes in infiltration of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and NK cells were examined by immunohistochemistry. In addition, we investigated cytokine and chemokine production related to DTH using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. We also investigated DTH-related cytokine production using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.
Two lactic acid bacterial strains (Lactobacillus pentosus SC65 and Pediococcus pentosaceus ON81A) were selected for fermenting GR due to their high DPPH radical-scavenging activity. The total polyphenol contents (TPCs) in GR-SC65 and GR-ON81A were higher than that in unfermented GR (*** P<0.001 vs. GR). Content of daidzein, glycitein, and genistein, the deglycosylated form of isoflavonoids, was higher in GR-SC65 than in unfermented GR. The ethanol extracts of GR-SC65 exerted a stronger anti-inflammatory activity than GR by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages. GR-SC65 reduced DNFB-induced ear swelling and hyperplasia as well as vascular permeability. Fewer infiltrated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were observed in the ear tissue of the GR-SC65-treated mice than those of the unfermented GR-treated mice. Furthermore, fewer infiltrated NK cells were observed in the GR-SC65 treated mice, than in the GR-treated mice. GR-SC65 significantly diminished the levels of CCL5 and COX-2 mRNAs and increased the level of IL-10 mRNA.
These data suggest that GR- SC65 can be used as a health supplement or a drug for a protective effect against delayed-type hypersensitive inflammatory disease.
Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier B.V.