The 2 µm wavelength band has recently gained increased attention for potential applications in next-generation optical communication. However, it is still challenging to achieve effective photodetection in the 2 µm wavelength band using group-IV-based semiconductors. Here we present an investigation of GeSn resonant-cavity-enhanced photodetectors (RCEPDs) on silicon-on-insulator substrates for efficient photodetection in the 2 µm wavelength band. Narrow-bandgap GeSn alloys are used as the active layer to extend the photodetection range to cover the 2 µm wavelength band, and the optical responsivity is significantly enhanced by the resonant cavity effect as compared to a reference GeSn photodetector. Temperature-dependent experiments demonstrate that the GeSn RCEPDs can have a wider photodetection range and higher responsivity in the 2 µm wavelength band at higher temperatures because of the bandgap shrinkage. These results suggest that our GeSn RCEPDs are promising for complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor-compatible, efficient, uncooled optical receivers in the 2 µm wavelength band for a wide range of applications.