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GFF MDI for the improvement of lung function in COPD – A look at the PINNACLE-1 and PINNACLE-2 data and beyond.

GFF MDI for the improvement of lung function in COPD – A look at the PINNACLE-1 and PINNACLE-2 data and beyond.
Author Information (click to view)

Rabe KF,


Rabe KF, (click to view)

Rabe KF,

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Expert review of clinical pharmacology 2017 05 0210(7) 685-698 doi 10.1080/17512433.2017.1320218
Abstract
INTRODUCTION
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death globally and incidence rates are continuing to rise. Long-acting bronchodilators are the foundation on which current pharmacological approaches to COPD management are built, with long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) and long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs) recommended across the spectrum of the disease continuum. Combining LAMAs and LABAs provides additional lung function improvements and relief of patient symptoms compared with either therapy alone. Several options for LAMA/LABA fixed-dose combinations (FDC) delivered via a single inhaler device are available; however, only recently has a LAMA/LABA FDC become available as a pressurized metered dose inhaler (MDI). Areas covered: This article describes the rationale for the development of the LAMA/LABA FDC of glycopyrrolate and formoterol fumarate, formulated by Co-Suspension™ Delivery Technology and delivered by MDI (GFF MDI). The clinical trial program of GFF MDI, including the pivotal Phase III studies (PINNACLE-1 and PINNACLE-2) that supported regulatory approval, are reviewed, providing insights into interpretation and future directions for research. Expert commentary: LAMA/LABA FDCs are already a crucial part of the COPD treatment paradigm, but additional data are needed in order to maximize their role as maintenance therapies in patients with COPD.

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