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Glucose concentrations after insulin-induced hypoglycemia and glycemic variability in healthy and diabetic cats.

Glucose concentrations after insulin-induced hypoglycemia and glycemic variability in healthy and diabetic cats.
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Zini E, Salesov E, Dupont P, Moretto L, Contiero B, Lutz TA, Reusch CE,


Zini E, Salesov E, Dupont P, Moretto L, Contiero B, Lutz TA, Reusch CE, (click to view)

Zini E, Salesov E, Dupont P, Moretto L, Contiero B, Lutz TA, Reusch CE,

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Journal of veterinary internal medicine 2018 03 30() doi 10.1111/jvim.15134
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Little information is available about posthypoglycemic hyperglycemia (PHH) in diabetic cats, and a causal link between hypoglycemia and subsequent hyperglycemia is not clear. Fluctuations in blood glucose concentrations might only represent high glycemic variability.

HYPOTHESIS
Insulin induces PHH in healthy cats, and PHH is associated with poorly regulated diabetes and increased glycemic variability in diabetic cats.

ANIMALS
Six healthy cats, 133 diabetic cats.

METHODS
Insulin (protamine-zinc and degludec; 0.1-0.3 IU/kg) administered to healthy cats. Blood glucose curves were generated with portable glucose meter to determine the percentage of curves with PHH. Data from insulin-treated diabetic cats with blood glucose curves showing hypoglycemia included data of cats with and without PHH. Post-hypoglycemic hyperglycemia was defined as blood glucose concentrations <4 mmol/L followed by blood glucose concentrations >15 mmol/L within 12 hours. Glycemic variability was calculated as the standard deviation of the blood glucose concentrations.

RESULTS
In healthy cats, all insulin doses caused hypoglycemia but PHH was not observed; glycemic variability did not differ between insulin preparations. Among diabetic cats with hypoglycemia, 33 (25%) had PHH. Compared with cats without PHH, their daily insulin dose was higher (1.09 ± 0.55 versus 0.65 ± 0.56 IU/kg; P < .001), serum fructosamine concentration was higher (565 ± 113 versus 430 ± 112 µmol/L; P < .001), remission was less frequent (10% versus 56%; P < .001), and glycemic variability was larger (8.1 ± 2.4 mmol/L versus 2.9 ± 2.2 mmol/L; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE
Insulin-induced hypoglycemia did not cause PHH in healthy cats but it occurred in 25% of diabetic cats with hypoglycemia, particularly when diabetes was poorly controlled. Glycemic variability was increased in cats with PHH.

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