The cellular environment affects optimal viral replication because viruses cannot replicate without their host cells. In particular, metabolic resources such as carbohydrates, lipids, and ATP are crucial for viral replication, which is sensitive to cellular metabolism. Intriguingly, recent studies have demonstrated that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection induces a metabolic shift from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis in CD4 T cells to produce the virus efficiently. However, the importance of aerobic glycolysis in maintaining the quality of viral components and viral infectivity has not yet been fully investigated. Here, we show that aerobic glycolysis is necessary not only to override the inhibitory effect of virion-incorporated glycolytic enzymes, but also to maintain the enzymatic activity of reverse transcriptase and the adequate packaging of envelope proteins into HIV-1 particles. To investigate the effect of metabolic remodeling on the phenotypic properties of HIV-1 produced by infected cells, we replaced glucose with galactose in the culture medium because the cells grown in galactose-containing medium are forced to carry out oxidative metabolism instead of aerobic glycolysis. We found that the packaging levels of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, alpha-enolase and pyruvate kinase muscle type 2, which decrease HIV-1 infectivity by packaging into viral particles, are increased in progeny viruses produced by the cells grown in galactose-containing medium. Furthermore, we found that the entry and reverse transcription efficiency of the progeny viruses were reduced, which was caused by a decrease in the enzymatic activity of reverse transcriptase in the viral particles and a decrease in the packaging levels of envelope proteins and reverse transcriptase. These results indicate that the aerobic glycolysis environment in HIV-1-infected cells may contribute to the quality control of viruses.
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