Clinical and experimental nephrology 2018 01 12() doi 10.1007/s10157-017-1528-0
Dipstick urine tests are used for general health screening in Japan, but how the test results (e.g., glucosuria) relate to mortality is unknown.
Subjects participated in a nationwide screening in 2008 in six districts in Japan. We identified those who might have died using the national database of death certificates from 2008 to 2012 (total registered ~ 6 million) and verified candidates with the regional National Health Insurance Agency and public health nurses. Diabetes mellitus (DM) was defined as HbA1c ≥ 6.5%, fasting blood glucose ≥ 126 mg/dl, or medicated for DM. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated by Cox proportional hazard analysis. Glucosuria was defined as dipstick ≥ 1 +.
Among 209,060 subjects, we identified 2714 fatalities (median follow-up 3.57 years). Crude mortality rates were 1.2% for those without glucosuria and 3.4% for those with glucosuria. After adjusting for sex, age, body mass index, comorbidity (DM, hypertension, and dyslipidemia), history (stroke, heart disease, and kidney disease), and lifestyle (smoking, drinking, walking, and exercise), the HR (95% CI) for dipstick glucosuria was 1.475 (1.166-1.849, P < 0.001). DM subjects with glucosuria (N = 4655) had a higher HR [1.302 (1.044-1.613, P = 0.020)] than DM subjects without glucosuria (N = 20,245), and non-DM subjects with glucosuria (N = 470) had a higher HR [2.511 (1.539-3.833, P < 0.001)] than non-DM subjects without glucosuria (N = 183,690). CONCLUSION
Dipstick glucosuria significantly affected mortality in Japanese community-based screening participants.