Children with relapsed/refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia continue to have dismal results, and overall survival does not surpass 40%, despite significant treatment advancements. For example, Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO), an immunoconjugate antibody against CD33, is a strong cytotoxic drug whose effectiveness has been predominantly shown in adult patients. New therapies are needed to enhance their prognosis.

For a study, researchers sought to evaluate the outcomes of kids who received GO at a single dosage of 4.5 mg/m2 together with Fludarabine, Cytarabine, and anthracyclines between February 2008 and August 2019 in the setting of first relapse (n=26) or refractory illness (n=3). Around 20 of the 29 youngsters (or 69%) who received allografts experienced remission.

The overall survival was 49%, with a median follow-up of 1.2 years (range: 0.1-8; CI 95%=33; 72). The most frequent adverse event, identified microbiologically in 55% of patients, was febrile neutropenia. Veno-occlusive illness manifested in 6 patients (21%); of them, 5 developed following a bone marrow donation and disappeared in 2-32 days (median 10.5 days).

A suitable reinduction strategy for relapsed or refractory AML with a decent safety profile appears to be the administration of GO in conjunction with FLA-anthracyclines treatment. The findings called for bigger prospective research.