For a study, researchers sought to utilize a randomized, double-blind trial, with a control group receiving cow milk formula (CMF) as a control and a reference group receiving breast fed (BF), to examine the growth and safety of neonates fed goat milk based infant formula (GMF). From 25 European study locations, 218 healthy term newborns up to 14 days old were enrolled and randomly assigned to GMF or CMF. At the study clinics, body weight, height, and head circumference measurements were taken at baseline, 14, 28, 56, 84, and 112 days. Parents self-reported adverse occurrences in 3-day diaries, including stool characteristics, reflux, fussiness, colic, and flatulence. Anthropometric measurements were transformed to WHO-standardized z-scores by adjusting for age and sex. Covariance analysis and linear mixed modeling were used to statistically analyze growth in the breastfed group (n=86) while adjusting for potential confounders. After 112 days of intervention, there was comparable weight gain across the GMF and CMF groups (mean difference 227.8 g; 95% CI -16.6 to -439.0) and z-scores for anthropometric measures. The mean weight z-score for infants in the infant formula groups was greater than the mean weight z-score for infants in the breastfed group starting at 84 days old. The GMF group had a mean weight z-score of 0.28 (0.84), the CMF group had a mean weight z-score of 0.12 (0.88), and the BF group had a mean weight z-score of −0.19 (1.02), P<0.05. Length and head circumference z-scores were similar among all groups. Serious adverse events, reflux, fussiness, colic, and flatulence were similar among all groups. The investigators’ data demonstrate that GMF provides adequate growth, has good tolerability, and is safe to use in infants.
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