Patients with HIV are more likely to require a total hip arthroplasty (THA) because of an increase in life expectancy and complications with HIV. The purpose of this study is to describe the mid-term outcomes of THA in HIV-positive patients and risk factors for postoperative infections and poor outcomes.
This is a single-center retrospective review of nonhemophiliac HIV-positive patients who underwent THA. We reviewed the short- and mid-term readmission and complication rates.
Eighty-seven patients underwent 102 THAs. The average age was 58 years (24-73 years). The average body mass index was 31.6 (18-55). The average CD4+ count was 569 cells per cubic millimeter (mm) (51-1480), and the mean viral load was <40 copies/mL (undetectable-380 000). The mean follow-up time was 6.7 years (24 months- 8.3 years). Four patients had postoperative complications within 30 days. Seven patients had postoperative complications after 30 days; 5 of which had septic loosening of implants and had either not been initiated on or were noncompliant with their highly active antiretroviral therapy. The average postoperative Harris Hip Score was 81 (41-100) and Oxford Hip Score was 43.43 (34-48). There was no correlation the between CD4+ count and viral load with complications.
Low rate of complications and revision is achievable in the HIV-positive, nonhemophilic arthroplasty population contrary to published literature. An important factor ensuring good long-term outcomes in HIV-positive patients undergoing THA was the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy before the procedure and ensuring patient compliance with therapy after joint arthroplasty.

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