Graves’ disease (GD) is characterized by thyrotoxicosis, caused by the presence of circulating thyroid stimulating antibodies (TSAb), that are determinant also in the pathogenesis of its extrathyroidal manifestations [Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO), pretibial myxedema]. T helper (Th)1 immune response prevails in the immune-pathogenesis of GD and GO, during the active phase, when Th1 chemokines, and their (C-X-C)R3 receptor, play a key role. In GD, the existing treatments are not ideal for hyperthyroidism (long-term remission with anti-thyroid-drugs only in 50% of patients; while radioiodine and surgery cause hypothyroidism). In GD, antigen-specific therapy has been recently published, with the induction of T cell tolerance via an immunization by TSH-R peptides. In GO, rituximab and drugs targeting cytokines have been evaluated. Furthermore, teprotumumab (a human monoclonal anti-IGF-1R blocking antibody) showed to be very effective in GO patients. Further researches are necessary to identify novel effective therapies targeting GD, or GO.Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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