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Guanine α-carboxy nucleoside phosphonate (G-α-CNP) shows a different inhibitory kinetic profile against the DNA polymerases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes viruses.

Guanine α-carboxy nucleoside phosphonate (G-α-CNP) shows a different inhibitory kinetic profile against the DNA polymerases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes viruses.
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Balzarini J, Menni M, Das K, van Berckelaer L, Ford A, Maguire NM, Liekens S, Boehmer PE, Arnold E, Götte M, Maguire AR,


Balzarini J, Menni M, Das K, van Berckelaer L, Ford A, Maguire NM, Liekens S, Boehmer PE, Arnold E, Götte M, Maguire AR, (click to view)

Balzarini J, Menni M, Das K, van Berckelaer L, Ford A, Maguire NM, Liekens S, Boehmer PE, Arnold E, Götte M, Maguire AR,

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Biochemical pharmacology 2017 04 06136() 51-61 pii 10.1016/j.bcp.2017.04.001

Abstract

α-Carboxy nucleoside phosphonates (α-CNPs) are modified nucleotides that represent a novel class of nucleotide-competing reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (NcRTIs). They were designed to act directly against HIV-1 RT without the need for prior activation (phosphorylation). In this respect, they differ from the nucleoside or nucleotide RTIs [N(t)RTIs] that require conversion to their triphosphate forms before being inhibitory to HIV-1 RT. The guanine derivative (G-α-CNP) has now been synthesized and investigated for the first time. The (L)-(+)-enantiomer of G-α-CNP directly and competitively inhibits HIV-1 RT by interacting with the substrate active site of the enzyme. The (D)-(-)-enantiomer proved inactive against HIV-1 RT. In contrast, the (+)- and (-)-enantiomers of G-α-CNP inhibited herpes (i.e. HSV-1, HCMV) DNA polymerases in a non- or uncompetitive manner, strongly indicating interaction of the (L)-(+)- and the (D)-(-)-G-α-CNPs at a location different from the polymerase substrate active site of the herpes enzymes. Such entirely different inhibition profile of viral polymerases is unprecedented for a single antiviral drug molecule. Moreover, within the class of α-CNPs, subtle differences in their sensitivity to mutant HIV-1 RT enzymes were observed depending on the nature of the nucleobase in the α-CNP molecules. The unique properties of the α-CNPs make this class of compounds, including G-α-CNP, direct acting inhibitors of multiple viral DNA polymerases.

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