Despite the substantial research advancements on oral diseases, dental caries remains a major healthcare burden. A disease of microbial dysbiosis, dental caries is characterised by the formation of biofilms that assist demineralisation and destruction of the dental hard tissues. While it is well understood that this is a multi-kingdom biofilm-mediated disease, it has been elucidated that acid producing and acid tolerant bacteria play pioneering roles in the process. Specifically, houses major virulence pathways that enable it to thrive in the oral cavity and cause caries. This pathogen adheres to the tooth substrate, forms biofilms, resists external stress, produces acids, kills closely related species, and survives the acid as well as the host clearance mechanisms. For an organism to be able to confer such virulence, it requires a large and complex gene network which synergise to establish disease. In this review, we have charted how these multi-faceted genes control several caries-related functions of . In a futuristic thinking approach, we also briefly discuss the potential roles of omics and machine learning, to ease the study of non-functional genes that may play a major role and enable the integration of experimental data.

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