To provide an evidence-based algorithm to guide the diagnosis and management of pregnancy of unknown location and tubal and nontubal ectopic pregnancy.
All patients of reproductive age.
The implementation of this guideline aims to benefit patients with positive β-human chorionic gonadotropin results and provide physicians with a standard algorithm for expectant, medical, and surgical treatment of pregnancy of unknown location and tubal pregnancy and nontubal ectopic pregnancies.
The following search terms were entered into PubMed/Medline and Cochrane in 2018: cesarean section, chorionic gonadotropin, beta subunit, human/blood, fallopian tubes/surgery, female, fertility, humans, infertility, laparoscopy, methotrexate, methotrexate/administration & dosage, methotrexate/therapeutic use, pregnancy (abdominal, angular, cervix, cornual, ectopic, ectopic/diagnosis, ectopic/diagnostic imaging, ectopic/drug therapy, ectopic/epidemiology, ectopic/mortality, ectopic/surgery, heterotopic, interstitial, isthmo-cervical, ovarian, tubal, unknown location), recurrence, risk factors, salpingectomy, salpingostomy, tubal pregnancy, ultrasonography, doppler ultrasonography, and prenatal. Articles included were randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, systematic reviews, observational studies, and case reports. Additional publications were identified from the bibliographies of these articles. Only English-language articles were reviewed.
The authors rated the quality of evidence and strength of recommendations using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. See online Appendix A (Tables A1 for definitions and A2 for interpretations of strong and weak recommendations).
Obstetrician-gynaecologists, family physicians, emergency physicians, midwives, registered nurses, nurse practitioners, medical students, and residents and fellows.
Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Inc.