More than one-fourth of all Persian Gulf War coalition soldiers remain seriously ill. Several epidemiological studies suggest a link between multiple vaccinations at the time of the military operation and the illness development. Macrophagic Myofasciitis and Post-HPV Vaccination Syndrome are two newer controversial vaccine-related disabling ailments.
1) To systematically review all original articles investigating the association of vaccines with Gulf War Illness, 2) To discuss Gulf War Illness, Macrophagic Myofasciitis, and Post-HPV Vaccination Syndrome clinical similarities, 3) To discuss emergent pathogenetic mechanisms proposed for Post-HPV Vaccination Syndrome that may be also relevant to Gulf War Illness and Macrophagic Myofasciitis.
All original epidemiological studies (n = 11) found a positive association between vaccination and Gulf War Illness development. Chronic fatigue, widespread pain and cognitive impairment characterize the three syndromes under discussion. Anti-adrenergic receptor antibodies, dysautonomia and small fiber neuropathy have been recently described in patients with Post-HPV Vaccination Syndrome.
Post-HPV Vaccination Syndrome, Macrophagic Myofasciitis, and Gulf War Illness analogy suggests that some vaccines or multiple vaccinations in a very short period of time may induce, in susceptible individuals, chronic pain, fatigue and dyscognition. Vaccine-induced autoimmune dysautonomia is hypothesized as the common pathogenetic mechanism for this symptom cluster. Further research on the presence of small fiber neuropathy, adrenergic receptor antibodies, and abnormal autonomic function tests in the three syndromes under discussion may help to elucidate this hypothesis.

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