For a study, it was determined that the gut microbiota can alter metabolic homeostasis and consequently the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, it is still not clear whether and how the gut microbiota and its metabolites alter in GDM. The gut microbial assemblages, as well as the fecal and urine metabolomes, of 59 patients with GDM are compared to 48 pregnant healthy controls in the study (HCs). The microbiological and metabolic fingerprints of GDM patients were found to be considerably different from those of healthy controls. The GDM participants were distinguished from the HCs by increased bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of the Lachnospiraceae family and deficient OTUs of the Enterobacteriaceae and Ruminococcaceae families. Glucose levels and fetal ultrasonography measures were both substantially linked with changed gut microorganisms.

Four fecal and 15 urinary metabolites that distinguish GDM from HC were also discovered by the researchers. Carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism are the key functions of these differentiated metabolites. Co-occurrence network analysis found that bacterial OTUs from the Lachnospiraceae and Enterobacteriaceae families had high co-occurring associations with metabolites involved in glucose and amino acid metabolism, implying that a disordered gut microbiome may be a mediator of GDM. Furthermore, the researchers discovered a unique combinatorial marker panel that could accurately discriminate GDM from HC patients. Researchers’ findings show that changes in microbial composition and metabolic performance may play a role in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of GDM.