Current opinion in HIV and AIDS 2017 10 17() doi 10.1097/COH.0000000000000426
PURPOSE OF REVIEW
Although the HIV-infected population is living longer and getting older under current treatment regimens, significant challenges arise for health management as the infection is associated with various premature aging phenotypes, particularly increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Here we review the current understanding of HIV-related gut dysbiosis in association with CVD and advances in clinical trials aiming to restore gut microbial diversity.
Identification of a unique signature for gut dysbiosis in HIV infection between different cohorts remains challenging. However, low diversity of microbiota combined with the outgrowth of pathogenic bacterial species together with dysregulated metabolic pathways have been linked to compromised gut immunity, bacterial translocation and systemic inflammation, hence higher CVD risk among different cohorts. Data from recent clinical trials aiming to evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of probiotics in treated HIV+ patients are promising and support a significant increase in microbiota diversity and reduction of systemic inflammation. However, the impact of these microbial and immunological corrections on the prevalence of CVD in HIV+ patients remains unclear.
Positive immunological outcomes following enrichment of the gut microbial diversity have been documented, and further trials are in progress to evaluate the range of patients, with different immunological backgrounds, who might benefit from these treatments.