Over the past 20 years, important relationships between the microbiota and human health have emerged. A link between alterations of microbiota composition (dysbiosis) and cancer development has been recently demonstrated. In particular, the composition and the oncogenic role of intestinal bacterial flora has been extensively investigated in preclinical and clinical studies focusing on gastrointestinal tumors. Overall, the development of gastrointestinal tumors is favored by dysbiosis as it leads to depletion of antitumor substances (e.g., short-chain fatty acids) produced by healthy microbiota. Moreover, dysbiosis leads to alterations of the gut barrier, promotes a chronic inflammatory status through activation of toll-like receptors, and causes metabolic and hormonal dysregulations. However, the effects of these imbalances are not limited to the gastrointestinal tract and they can influence gynecological tumor carcinogenesis as well. The purpose of this Review is to provide a synthetic update about the mechanisms of interaction between gut microbiota and the female reproductive tract favoring the development of neoplasms. Furthermore, novel therapeutic approaches based on the modulation of microbiota and their role in gynecological oncology are discussed.

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