Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is found to be set up on both lifestyle and pharmacological approaches. While the clinical efforts they make are studied, their effects on gut microbiota are lesser-known. Researchers aimed to search if a vigorous lifestyle with interference and care standards runs to varied gut microbiota compositions as compared to the one with standard care treatment with T2D, moreover if it is related to the benefits of the treatment. About 98 patients suffering from T2D were either following a vigorous lifestyle with interference (N = 64) or were with the standard care alone group(N = 34)  for the past 12 months. All the patients selected received individual counseling and target-driven, blinded, medical therapy. Furthermore, researchers found out that dietary plans and physical training were provided to the lifestyle intervention group. 

Fecal samples and clinical features were gathered at the baseline of 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12 months. The gut microbiota was profiled with 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Though there was no statistical change in the composition of gut microbiota between treatments after 12 months, except for some minor differences in the third month. The gut microbiota did not mediate the treatment effect on clinical characteristics throughout all time windows of T2D. Thus the lifestyle or the clinical benefits in the case of TSD are a bit hard to explain or casual.