This study investigated the impact of the administration of HAART and anti-Koch’s, singly and in combination, on sexual competence and birth statistics. Adult male Wistar rats were randomised into distilled water-treated control, HAART-treated, anti-Koch’s-treated and HAART + anti-Koch’s-treated groups. The 56-day oral treatment led to impaired sexual competence evident by significantly reduced motivation to mate, prolonged latencies of mount, intromissions, ejaculations and post-ejaculatory interval, as well as reduced frequencies of mount, intromissions and ejaculations. This was accompanied by significant reductions in penile erection reflex and penile grooming. HAART and anti-Koch’s, when administered singly or in combination, also led to significant reductions in the circulatory follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, testosterone and intratesticular testosterone, but a significant rise in prolactin. Also, HAART and/or anti-Koch’s significantly reduced sperm count, sperm motility, sperm viability and spermatozoa with normal morphology. Furthermore, HAART and anti-Koch’s, separately or in combination, significantly lowered fertility capacity, litter size and litter weight and offspring survival. The deleterious effects of these drugs were more pronounced when combined. Findings of the present study revealed that HAART and/or anti-Koch’s impair sexual competence via a testosterone-dependent hyperprolactinemia-mediated mechanism. These events are associated with reduced fertility capacity, poor sperm quality and lowered offspring survival.
© 2021 Wiley-VCH GmbH.