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Hair levels of preexposure prophylaxis drugs measure adherence and are associated with renal decline among men/transwomen.

Hair levels of preexposure prophylaxis drugs measure adherence and are associated with renal decline among men/transwomen.
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Gandhi M, Murnane PM, Bacchetti P, Elion R, Kolber MA, Cohen SE, Horng H, Louie A, Kuncze K, Koss CA, Anderson PL, Buchbinder S, Liu A,


Gandhi M, Murnane PM, Bacchetti P, Elion R, Kolber MA, Cohen SE, Horng H, Louie A, Kuncze K, Koss CA, Anderson PL, Buchbinder S, Liu A, (click to view)

Gandhi M, Murnane PM, Bacchetti P, Elion R, Kolber MA, Cohen SE, Horng H, Louie A, Kuncze K, Koss CA, Anderson PL, Buchbinder S, Liu A,

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AIDS (London, England) 31(16) 2245-2251 doi 10.1097/QAD.0000000000001615

Abstract
OBJECTIVE
The US preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) Demonstration Project (U.S. Demo) evaluated MSM on PrEP postmarketing and found low seroconversion rates. The objective of this study is to examine hair levels as an adherence measure to PrEP.

DESIGN
Using an ‘opt-in’ design, participants of PrEP Demo were invited to enroll into a substudy where hair was collected quarterly.

METHODS
Tenofovir concentrations were measured in hair by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Hair levels consistent with ≥4 doses/week (protective in other studies) defined adequate adherence. Mixed effects multivariate logistic regression models examined factors associated with ≥4 doses/week. Separate mixed effects models evaluated the relationship between hair PrEP levels and changes in creatinine clearance (CrCl) over time.

RESULTS
Overall, 58% of U.S. Demo participants enrolled into this opt-in study; reasons for nonparticipation included insufficient hair (61%) and concerns about hairstyle (27%). Hair and dried blood spots levels consistent with ≥4 doses/week were highly concordant (84%). Hair levels showed adequate adherence in 87% of 875 person-visits (among 280 participants). Factors associated with adequate adherence in multivariate models were amphetamine use [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.59 (0.97-6.9, P 0.06)], condomless receptive anal sex [aOR 2.28 (1.19-4.40, P 0.01)], and stable housing [aOR 2.63 (1.03-6.67), P 0.04]. Hair levels of tenofovir showed a monotonic relationship with decline in CrCl (P 0.01 for trend).

CONCLUSION
In this substudy of the U.S. PrEP demonstration project, hair and dried blood spots levels were highly concordant and hair concentrations demonstrated adequate adherence 87% of the time, with stable housing and high-risk behavior associated with higher adherence. Daily PrEP drug taking is associated with modest declines in CrCl.

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