Epidemiological estimates indicate that individuals with epilepsy are more likely to experience headaches, including migraine, than individuals without epilepsy. Headaches can be temporally unrelated to seizures, or can occur before, during or after an episode; seizures and migraine attacks are mostly not temporally linked. The pathophysiological links between headaches (including migraine) and epilepsy are complex and have not yet been fully elucidated. Correct diagnoses and appropriate treatment of headaches in individuals with epilepsy is essential, as headaches can contribute substantially to disease burden. Here, we review the insights that have been made into the associations between headache and epilepsy over the past 5 years, including information on the pathophysiological mechanisms and genetic variants that link the two disorders. We also discuss the current best practice for the management of headaches co-occurring with epilepsy and highlight future challenges for this area of research.
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