To summarize the unique aspects of managing headache in gender minorities and current research in this area including the potential relationship between gender-affirming hormone therapy (GAHT) and headache.
The study of headache in gender minorities is intrinsically important. Gender minorities are medically underserved, and their medical care to date has been limited by socioeconomic disadvantages including stigma and an unsupportive clinical environment. Despite the rising population of transgender and gender-diverse adults and youth, headache research has also been limited. Knowledge of hormonal effects on headache in cisgender patients raises the question of possible effects of GAHT on transgender patients.
The manuscript is a narrative review of current best practices in treating transgender patients, including the use of appropriate terminology and ways to create a supportive environment. It also contains current guidelines on GAHT and reviews drug-drug interactions and secondary headache related to hormone therapy. We also review transgender headache research and related research on hormonal effects on headache in cisgender individuals.
Creating a supportive environment for transgender and gender-diverse patients and being knowledgeable about GAHT are key to providing quality headache care. This review identifies further research needs for this population including the epidemiology of headache disorders in sexual minorities and the potential effects of GAHT on headache disorders in transgender patients.

© 2021 American Headache Society.