Three-Dimensional (3D) heads-up visualization systems have significantly advanced vitreoretinal surgery, providing enhanced detail and improved ergonomics. This review discusses the application of 3D systems in vitreoretinal surgery, their use in various procedures, their combination with other imaging modalities, and the role of this technology in medical education and telementoring. Furthermore, the review highlights the benefits of 3D systems, such as improved ergonomics, reduced phototoxicity, enhanced depth of field, and the use of color filters. Potential challenges, including the learning curve and additional costs, are also addressed. The review concludes by exploring promising future applications, including teleophthalmology for remote assistance and specialist availability expansion, virtual reality integration for global clinical education, and the combination of remotely robotic-guided surgery with artificial intelligence for precise, efficient surgical procedures. This comprehensive review offers insights into the current state and future potential of 3D heads-up visualization systems in vitreoretinal surgery, underscoring the transformative impact of this technology on ophthalmology.© 2023 Razavi et al.