Myelosuppression is a potential dose-limiting factor in radioligand therapy (RLT). This study aims to investigate occurrence, severity and reversibility of hematotoxic adverse events in patients undergoing RLT with Lu-PSMA-617 for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). The contribution of pretreatment risk factors and cumulative treatment activity is taken into account specifically.
RLT was performed in 140 patients receiving a total of 497 cycles. A mean activity of 6.9 [Formula: see text] 1.3 GBq Lu-PSMA-617 per cycle was administered, and mean cumulative activity was 24.6 [Formula: see text] 15.9 GBq. Hematological parameters were measured at baseline, prior to each treatment course, 2 to 4 weeks thereafter and throughout follow-up. Toxicity was graded based on Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v5.0.
Significant (grade ≥ 3) hematologic adverse events occurred in 13 (9.3%) patients, with anemia in 10 (7.1%), leukopenia in 5 (3.6%) and thrombocytopenia in 6 (4.3%). Hematotoxicity was reversible to grade ≤ 2 through a median follow-up of 8 (IQR 9) months in all but two patients who died from disease progression within less than 3 months after RLT. Myelosuppression was significantly more frequent in patients with pre-existing grade 2 cytopenia (OR: 3.50, 95%CI 1.08-11.32, p = 0.04) or high bone tumor burden (disseminated or diffuse based on PROMISE miTNM, OR: 5.08, 95%CI 1.08-23.86, p = 0.04). Previous taxane-based chemotherapy was associated with an increased incidence of significant hematotoxicity (OR: 4.62, 95%CI 1.23-17.28, p = 0.02), while treatment with Ra-dichloride, cumulative RLT treatment activity and activity per cycle were not significantly correlated (p = 0.93, 0.33, 0.29).
Hematologic adverse events after RLT have an acceptable overall incidence and are frequently reversible. High bone tumor burden, previous taxane-based chemotherapy and pretreatment grade 2 cytopenia may be considered as risk factors for developing clinically relevant myelosuppression, whereas cumulative RLT activity and previous Ra-dichloride treatment show no significant contribution to incidence rates.