There is a growing population of transplant survivors receiving both a solid organ (SOT) and a hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). This group remains underreported and not well described. We conducted a single center retrospective study aimed at assessing safety and long-term survival outcomes of 40 patients receiving both HCT and SOT at the University of Minnesota. Twenty-seven patients underwent HCT followed by SOT (13 kidney, 10 lung, 2 liver, 1 heart, 1 heart/kidney) with median age of 40 years (range 5-72) at time of SOT at a median of 88 months (range 24-302) following the HCT. The 1, 5 and 10-year overall survival (OS) from the SOT was 93%, 76%, and 49% respectively with only 4 organ failures reported. Thirteen other patients received a HCT following a prior kidney (n=8), liver (n=4) or pancreas/kidney (n=1) SOT with median age of 42 (range, 3-66) at time of the HCT and a median 154 months (range 1-304) from the SOT. The 1, 5 and 10-year OS from HCT were 46%, 46% and 17% respectively. In patients receiving SOT followed by HCT, survival outcomes were better in kidney transplant recipients, and patients subsequently requiring an autologous rather than an allogeneic HCT. There were no HCT engraftment failures. Our findings show that in a select patient population, undergoing a second transplant at a specialized center can lead to favorable outcomes with long-term survival and low incidence of graft rejection, organ failure and malignant disease relapse. A large-scale study is needed to determine the incidence and risk factors preferred for a successful subsequent SOT or HCT. Those studies are crucial to further guide selection and management of patients who would benefit most from a second transplant.
Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Inc.